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Fragile archipelago

Indonesia secrete
The Acheh Times is best viewed by:
Cessation of hostilities
 
GAM will let the Achenese decide whether they want to continue to struggle for independence or they will be part of Indonesia. It is up to them to decide in elections democratically, in a safe manner. The document we are signing is a first step. (Read speech/Dr. Zaini Abdullah)
The landmark agreement signed
 
Geneva (HDC), December 9, 2002 —— The Henry Dunant Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue (HDC) would like to confirm that an agreement on a cessation of hostilities has been signed by representatives of the Government of the Republic of Indonesia (GoI) and the Free Acheh Movement (GAM). The landmark agreement was signed at HDC’s office in Geneva, Switzerland at 10.00am GMT by Mr S Wiryono and Dr Zaini Abdullah, the chief negotiators of both parties. It was witnessed by HDCs Director, Martin Griffiths, in the presence of delegations from both parties, international diplomats and the media.
     

at SPECIAL REPORT

   
 

  'Congratulate both sides on this historic occasion for their commitment to resolving their differences through peaceful means.'  

DC would like to congratulate both sides on this historic occasion for their commitment to resolving their differences through peaceful means and for their dedication to creating a peaceful environment for the people of Acheh. A phased deployment of monitors in support of the agreement will begin on 10 December 2002. They will start by setting up district offices and continue with a gradual increase in their numbers and capacity to monitor incidents. The HDC Senior Envoy for the Joint Security Committee will arrive in Acheh on 16 December 2002. He will then be joined by representatives of the GoI and GAM.

With the encouragement and support of the international community, as expressed at the Tokyo conference, and the continued commitment of the GoI, the GAM and the people of Acheh, we are confident that the implementation of the agreement and the rehabilitation and reconstruction process will be successful.

HDC is encouraged that the cessation of hostilities is recognised by all participants as a necessary first step, and repeat that it can only be sustainable through all-inclusive dialogue, concrete actions towards fair and democratic elections and comprehensive programming aimed at addressing the root causes of conflict.

       
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

'In order to meet the aspirations of the people of Acheh and permit them to administer themselves freely and democratically, the GoI and GAM agree to a process which leads to an election in 2004.'

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

'Agreement to cease hostilities and all forms of violence toward each other and toward the people in Acheh, by implementing the steps stipulated in this Agreement.'

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

'All-Inclusive Dialogue to enable the process to be conducted in a safe and fair manner, reflecting the views of all elements of Achenese society.'

 

Cessation of Hostilities

Framework agreement between GoI and the Free Acheh Movement

Preamble

The Government of the Republic of Indonesia (GoI) and the Free Acheh Movement (GAM) have been engaged in a process of dialogue since January 2000 and concur that the priority in Acheh is the security and welfare of the people and therefore agree on the need for finding an immediate peaceful solution to the conflict in Acheh. On 10 May 2002, the GoI and GAM issued a Joint Statement set out below:

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Indonesia and Acheh GAM agree truce

 

1. On the basis of the acceptance of the NAD Law as a starting point, as discussed on 2-3 February 2002, to a democratic all-inclusive dialogue involving all elements of Achenese society that will be facilitated by HDC in Acheh. This process will seek to review elements of the NAD Law through the expression of the views of the Achenese people in a free and safe manner. This will lead to the election of a democratic government in Acheh, Indonesia.

2. To enable this process to take place both parties agree to work with all speed on an agreement on cessation of hostilities with an adequate mechanism for accountability of the parties to such an agreement. This will also provide the opportunity and environment for much needed socio-economic and humanitarian assistance to the people of Acheh.

The GoI and GAM share the common objective to meet the aspirations of the people of Acheh to live in security with dignity, peace, prosperity, and justice. In order to meet the aspirations of the people of Acheh and permit them to administer themselves freely and democratically, the GoI and GAM agree to a process which leads to an election in 2004 and the subsequent establishment of a democratically elected government in Acheh, Indonesia, in accordance with the review of the NAD Law, as provided for in point 1 of the 10 May 2002 Joint Statement.

To this end, the GoI will ensure and GAM will support the development of a free and fair electoral process in Acheh, which will be designed to ensure the broadest participation of all elements of Achenese society.

In light of the delicate nature of the confidence building process, the GoI and GAM further appeal for the support of all elements of society and request that no party undertake any action which is inconsistent with this Agreement and may jeopardize the future security and welfare of the people of Acheh.

The immediate requirement is to ensure the cessation of hostilities and all acts of violence, including, intimidation, destruction of property and any offensive and criminal action. Offensive and criminal action is deemed to include violent actions such as attacking, shooting, engaging in torture, killing, abducting, bombing, burning, robbing, extorting, threatening, terrorising, harassing, illegally arresting people, raping, and conducting illegal searches.

Throughout the peace process the maintenance of law and order in Acheh will continue to be the responsibility of the Indonesian Police (Polri). In this context, the mandate and mission of Brimob will be reformulated to strictly conform to regular police activities and as such will no longer initiate offensive actions against members of GAM not in contravention of the Agreement.

The JSC will be the point of reference for all complaints regarding police functions and action that are deemed to be in contravention of the spirit and letter of the Cessation of Hostilities (COH) Agreement. As such, the JSC will be responsible for defining, identifying and investigating when and if the police have breached their mandate.

With this general understanding, and to bring the peace process forward to the next phase, both parties hereby agree on the following:

Article 1: Objectives of the cessation of hostilities and all acts of violence

  1. Since both sides have thus agreed that, from now on, enmity between them should be considered a thing of the past, the peace process, which is continued by an agreement on this phase, will proceed by building further confidence and both sides will prove to each other that they are serious about achieving this ultimate common objective.

  2. The objectives of the cessation of hostilities and all acts of violence between both parties are (i) to proceed to the next phase of the peace process, as mutually agreed on 10 May 2002 in Switzerland; (ii) to continue the confidence building process with a view to eliminating all suspicions and creating a positive and co-operative atmosphere which will bring the conflict in Acheh to a peaceful conclusion; and, (iii) to enable, provided hostilities and all acts of violence cease, for the peace process to proceed to the next phases, i.e. the delivery of humanitarian, rehabilitation and reconstruction assistance.

Article 2: Commitment by both sides to cease hostilities and all acts of violence

  1. Both sides explicitly express their commitment to meet the terms of this Agreement to cease hostilities and all forms of violence toward each other and toward the people in Acheh, by implementing the steps stipulated in this Agreement. In expressing such commitment, both sides guarantee that they are in full control of, respectively, TNI/Polri and GAM forces on the ground. GoI and GAM commit to control those groups that do not share their objectives but claim to be part of their forces.

  2. Both sides further commit themselves to immediately after the signing of this Agreement to thoroughly inform their respective forces on the ground of the terms of this Agreement, and to instruct them to cease hostilities immediately.

  3. Both sides agree that, should there be other parties taking advantage of the situation and disturbing the peaceful atmosphere, they will endeavour to take joint action against them to restore the peace.

  4. During this confidence-building period, both sides agree that they will not increase their military strength, which includes re-deployment of forces, increase in military personnel or military equipment into Acheh.

  5. HDC is requested to strictly facilitate the implementation of this Agreement.

  6. Both parties will allow civil society to express without hindrance their democratic rights.

Article 3: Joint Security Committee (JSC)

  1. The senior leadership in charge of security from each side will meet, in order to establish the initial contact and understanding between both sides. They should also (i) reactivate the Joint Security Committee (JSC), which was established during the implementation of the Humanitarian Pause, and (ii) commence discussion, in order to reach agreement expeditiously, on a plan of action for the JSC in discharging its duties.

  2. The functions of JSC are: (i) to formulate the process of implementation of this Agreement; (ii) to monitor the security situation in Acheh; (iii) to undertake full investigation of any security violations; (iv) in such cases, to take appropriate action to restore the security situation and to agree beforehand on the sanctions to be applied, should any party violate this Agreement; (v) to publish weekly reports on the security situation in Acheh; (vi) to ensure that no new paramilitary force is created to assume previous functions of Brimob, and (vii) to design and implement a mutually agreed upon process of demilitarisation. Regarding this last task, the JSC will designate what will be called Peace Zones (see Art. 4(a)). After peace zones have been identified, the GAM will designate placement sites for its weapons. Two months after the signing of the COH and as confidence grows, GAM will begin the phased placement of its weapons, arms and ordinance in the designated sites. The JSC will also decide on a simultaneous phased relocation of TNI forces which will reformulate their mandate from a strike force to a defensive force. The GoI has the right to request HDC to undertake no-notice verification of the designated sites. With the growth in confidence of both parties in the process the phased placement of GAM weapons will be completed within a period of five months (see attached note).

  3. The composition of JSC will be senior officials appointed as representatives of the GoI and the GAM and a senior third party personality of high standing agreed upon by both sides. Each senior official from the three parties are to be accompanied by up to four persons as members. The heads of delegations from both sides have to be senior and have the authority to be able to take decisions on the spot.

    The third party (HDC) personality needs to be able to command the respect and high regard of both sides in order to be able to assist in resolving problems, as they arise.

  4. In order to perform these functions, the JSC is to be assisted by a monitoring team or monitoring teams, which would be provided security guarantees by both sides in monitoring the security situation and in investigating any violation.

  5. The composition of each of the monitoring teams are appointed officials as representatives of the High Command of the security forces of the GoI and the High Command of the forces of the GAM in Acheh and a senior third party military officer agreed upon by both sides reporting to the senior third party personality of high standing in the JSC.

  6. JSC and the monitoring team(s) would be provided with the necessary technical and administrative staff and logistical support. The HDC is requested to facilitate the establishment of these bodies by providing the necessary funds, logistical and administrative facilities.

  7. It is agreed upon that the JSC and the monitoring team(s) will be established and be operational within one month of the signing of this Agreement. Civil society has the right to provide inputs to the JSC.

(HDC's interpretation of the clauses in the article 3)

 

Article 4: Establishment of 'Peace Zones'

  1. Following the signing of the COH Agreement, the JSC, with the direct participation of the senior leadership for security from both sides, will immediately identify and prepare locations of conflict to be designated as "Peace Zones". This would facilitate considerably the work of the JSC since it could focus its attention on these areas in establishing and maintaining security, and these zones, provided peace could be established, will be the focus of the initial humanitarian, rehabilitation and reconstruction assistance.

  2. For the first two months after the signing, both parties will relocate to defensive positions as agreed upon by the JSC. Adjustments to these locations could be made by the JSC in order to separate the forces of both parties with sufficient distance to avoid contact or confrontation. Forces of both parties will refrain from operations, movements, activities or any provocative acts that could lead to contact or confrontation with each other.

  3. In order to build trust and confidence during these crucial months, these zones and surroundings will be monitored by the tripartite monitoring teams. The JSC will be informed by both parties of any significant movements or activities in these areas.

  4. POLRI will be able to investigate criminal activities in these areas in consultation with the JSC.

  5. The designation of identified areas of demilitarised zones such as schools, mosques, health institutions and public places, bazaars, Achenese meunasahs, market-places, foodstalls, communication centres including bus-terminals, taxi-stations, ferry-terminals, public roads, river transportation services, and fishing ports.

Article 5: Time Frames

  1. Both sides agree that hostilities and all acts of violence by both sides should cease forever in Acheh.

  2. Both sides also agree that hostilities and all acts of violence during the first three months from the time when the JSC and the monitoring team(s) become operational are very crucial as indicator of the seriousness of the commitment from both sides. If indeed hostilities and all acts of violence could decrease dramatically, or even cease altogether, during this first three month period, the Achenese and other Indonesian people, and the international community, would consider that the peace process would most likely succeed.

  3. During the period between the signing of this Agreement and the time when the JSC and the monitoring team(s) become operational, both signatories to this Agreement commit themselves to exercise the utmost restraint by not making any public statement that would inflame the feeling and sentiment of the other side, including the people, and by ensuring that their forces will not initiate any hostile act toward the other.

Article 6: All-Inclusive Dialogue

The parties agree to support the process of All-Inclusive Dialogue in Acheh as provided for in the Joint Statement of 10 May 2002. The parties agree to ensure, through this Agreement, the necessary security and freedom of movement for all participants in the All-Inclusive Dialogue to enable the process to be conducted in a safe and fair manner, reflecting the views of all elements of Achenese society. The parties reconfirm their agreement that the process of All-Inclusive Dialogue be facilitated by HDC.

Article 7: Public Information & Communications

  1. To ensure national and international support for the peace process in Acheh, the Agreement of 10 May 2002, and this Agreement and its implementation have to be publicised as widely as possible within one month of the signing of this Agreement. The process of implementation has to be as transparent as possible and the people have to be regularly informed of the progress made and difficulties encountered.

  2. Communications to the public will be given priority, especially through the print and electronic media. Television and radio programmes have to be devised to enable obtaining inputs from the general public provided that they are conducted in a fair and balanced manner. The JSC remains the final reference on this matter.

  3. Other media, such as community meetings, seminars, flyers, bumper stickers, T-shirts, and others could also be considered, as appropriate.

  4. The HDC is requested to look for sources of funding these public information and communication activities.

Article 8: Joint Council

A Joint Council will be established, composed of the most senior representatives of the GoI and the GAM, and of the third party (HDC). The function of this Joint Council will be to resolve all issues or disputes arising out of the implementation of this Agreement, which cannot be resolved by other Committees or Structures established under this Agreement. The Joint Council may amend the articles and provisions of this Agreement.

Article 9: Amendment or Termination

This Agreement may only be amended by agreement between the two parties in the Joint Council. Should either party wish to unilaterally terminate the Agreement then they are obligated to first bring the issue to the Joint Council and engage in and support all efforts by the Joint Council to resolve the problem within a sufficient period of time (no less than 30 days). If the Joint Council is unable to resolve the matter, then either party has the right to unilaterally withdraw from the Agreement.

Signed by:

For the Government of the Republic of Indonesia, Amb. Mr. S. Wiryono; For the Leadership the Free Acheh Movement, Dr. Zaini Abdullah and Witnessed by Henry Dunant Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue (HDC), Mr. Martin Griffiths. (view signatures)

 

 

For further enquiries please contact:

Andy Andrea, Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, 114 rue de Lausanne 1202 - Geneva, Switzerland; Tel: +41 (0)22 908 11 30; +41(0)79 257 9974, Fax: +41 (0)22 908 11 40; www.hdcentre.org

Bakhtiar Abdullah, information officer, Free Acheh Movement; Tel: +46 (0) 8 531 83833, +46 (0) 8 531 91275, +46 (0) 70 699 3982

Indonesian Foreign Affairs Ministry in Jakarta; Tel: +62 (21) 344 1508 or 350 3878; We: www.deplu.go.id

Public Information Unit, Banda Acheh, Tel: +62 (651) 24535, ex. 305, Fax +62 (651) 24535

     

 

   

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